## NPV Calculator

Easily calculate the NPV and IRR of an investment using this online calculator. Input the initial investment, discount rate, and investment term to determine the NPV, IRR, gross return, and net cash flow.

## Using the NPV calculator

Our NPV calculator is a useful tool that can help you evaluate the profitability of an investment. By entering the initial investment, the investment period, and the discount rate, you can calculate the Net Present Value (NPV), gross return, Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and net cash flow. The discount rate is typically the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), but it can also be adjusted for risk, opportunity cost, and other factors.

## What is Net Present Value?

The NPV is a measure of the net value of an expected income stream, taking into account the time value of money. The formula for NPV is the sum of the present value of the expected cash flows, minus the initial investment. A positive NPV indicates that the investment is profitable, while a negative NPV means that it is not.

When using the NPV calculator, it’s important to enter the free cash flow, rather than a cash flow after interest, to avoid double-counting the time value of money. The calculator will output the NPV, IRR, gross return, and net cash flow over the entire period.

## How to choose the discount rate in NPV analysis?

To calculate the present value of future cash flows, a discount rate must be chosen. This rate is specific to the company and depends on how the company finances its operations. The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) can be used when borrowing capital, while the expected rate of return for shareholders can be used when calculating NPV from the perspective of investors. For example, if shareholders expect a 10% return, this rate should be used when calculating NPV.

Once the discount rate is selected, the present values of future cash flows can be calculated using the NPV formula. Subtracting the initial investment from the sum of these present values gives the present value of the future income stream.

## NPV formula

To calculate the Net Present Value (NPV) on your own or using an Excel spreadsheet, you can use the following formula:

*NPV = C0 + (C1/(1+r)^1) + (C2/(1+r)^2) + … + (Ct/(1+r)^t)*

Where r is the discount rate, t is the number of cash flow periods, C0 is the initial investment, and Ct is the return during period t. For example, if you have a period of 10 years, an initial investment of $1,000,000 and a discount rate of 8% (average return from an investment of comparable risk), t = 10, C0 = $1,000,000, and r = 0.08

## A practical example of NPV

As an example, let’s say you are considering purchasing a house for $500,000, with the expectation that it will be sold for $700,000 in three years. Additionally, you anticipate that the house will require $10,000 per year in maintenance and taxes. To evaluate the profitability of this investment, you want to compare it to a less risky option such as a T-Bond, which has a yield of 5% per year. To do this, you can use the Net Present Value (NPV) calculation.

When plugging in the numbers into the NPV calculator, you would use the T-Bond’s yield of 5% as the discount rate. The resulting NPV is $77,454, which may be seen as a good return for the increased risk compared to a T-Bond. You can also compare the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) which is 10%, which is double the T-Bond’s yield of 5%. However, it’s important to keep in mind that if the risk is more than double that of the safer option, the investment may not be wise.

It’s worth noting that the initial investment is the only exact number in this calculation. All other values are estimates and expectations, and if they turn out to be different than what you expect, for example if the sale price at the end is only $650,000 and if the maintenance turns out to be twice as expensive, the investment may yield close to zero discounted return.

## Applications, caveats, and alternatives to net present value

The net present value (NPV) is a commonly used financial metric that helps determine if a project or investment will result in a net profit or loss. A positive NPV means that there is potential for profit, while a negative NPV indicates that losses are to be expected. While a company or individual cannot pursue every positive return project, NPV is still useful as a tool in discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to compare different prospective investments.

However, it’s important to note that the accuracy of NPV is dependent on the assumptions and estimates that are used. Substantial errors in the output can result from inaccurate input, so it’s always wise to allow for some unforeseen expenditures when using NPV.

An alternative to NPV is the payback period, which measures how long it will take for the original investment to be fully repaid, but this method should not be used for longer-term investments as it does not account for the time value of money and cannot account for sharp movements in cash flow. NPV is often used alongside other tools such as the internal rate of return (IRR) to provide a more complete picture of the investment.